To protect human lives in this transition, it is necessary to have a clear vision of the safety dynamics associated with each energy source and propulsion, manoeuvring and operation technologies. This can be accomplished by acquiring the correct knowledge about the energy sources being used and obtaining the proper competencies necessary for the whole operation, including emergency circumstances. Competencies must therefore include knowledge of operations that may include, inter alia, extreme temperatures and pressures, toxicity, corrosiveness and high voltage, all of which can inflict harm and/or accidents.

The purpose of this document is to highlight the imminent need to put in place measures for those involved in direct on-the-job operations and provide recommendations to close the safety and competency gaps that may exist. 

When introducing alternative energy sources, the following are crucial:

  • A robust training scheme that guarantees the highest level of safety culture;
  • appropriate training that covers communication, risk analysis, operation and emergency situations;
  • knowledge about construction and design and relevant regulations;
  • adequate fire detection and fire-fighting equipment;
  • availability of proper lifesaving appliances; and
  • provisions of adequate personal protection equipment for all personnel. 


Reading guidance

1. Fuels, energy sources and technologies contained in this document:

  • Hydrogen
  • Ammonia
  • Low Sulphur Heavy Fuel Oil (LSHFO)
  • Low Sulphur Heavy Fuel Oil (LSHFO)
  • Biofuel 
  • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
  • Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
  • Liquefied Ethylene Gas (LEG)
  • Ethanol 
  • Methanol
  • Lithium - ion Battery
  • Fusion Energy – Thorium Molten salt Reactor
  • Fuel cell (as technology)
  • Exhaust Gas Cleaning System “Scrubbers” (as technology)